2019nov1 Transport - The scramjet is a super-fast, experimental engine with no moving parts
A) "A scramjet engine is a type of ramjet in which injected fuel is burned in a supersonic airstream within the engine,"" explained Bowcutt.
"For ramjets, fuel combustion occurs in subsonic air, which is what makes it different from a scramjet."
Ramjets and scramjets, he said, are both air-breathing jet engines that do not employ compressor blades to compress the air. Ramjets operate up to about Mach 5.
B) "Beyond Mach 5, air pressure and temperature become too high in the engine for it to operate at optimal levels," Bowcutt said.
"To prevent this condition, the air is allowed to remain at supersonic speed in the engine, which by definition makes it a scramjet."
"Speed therefore dictates the type of engine used for air-breathing flight: turbofan/turbojet to about Mach 3, ramjet to about Mach 5, and scramjet beyond."
C) "It employs what is called a turbo-ramjet engine, which is the integration of turbofan and ramjet engines into a combined propulsion system," he explained.
D) Interesting engineering articles from spectrum.ieee.org
2021jan28 Robotics, Drones - Smellicopter Drone Uses Live Moth Antenna to Track Scents
Robots are no match for the sensors insect are born with, but that doesn't matter if we can just steal them.
To make one of these sensors, you just, uh, “harvest” an antenna from a live hawkmoth. Obligingly, the moth antenna is hollow, meaning that you can stick electrodes up it. Whenever the olfactory neurons in the antenna (which is still technically alive even though it's not attached to the moth anymore) encounter an odor that they're looking for, they produce an electrical signal that the electrodes pick up. Plug the other ends of the electrodes into a voltage amplifier and filter, run it through an analog to digital converter, and you've got a chemical sensor that weighs just 1.5 gram and consumes only 2.7 mW of power. It's significantly more sensitive than a conventional metal-oxide odor sensor, in a much smaller and more efficient form factor, making it ideal for drones.
There are a few other constraints to keep in mind with this sensor as well. First, rather than detecting something useful (like explosives), it's going to detect the smells of pretty flowers, because moths like pretty flowers. Second, the antenna will literally go dead on you within a couple hours, since it only functions while its tissues are alive and metaphorically kicking.
2020apr6 This Guy Says He Solved the Most Controversial Open Problem in Math.
He has the (600-page) proof. But other mathematicians have their pitchforks.
The abc conjecture expresses a profound link between the addition and multiplication of integer numbers. Any integer can be factored into prime numbers, its ‘divisors': for example, 60 = 5 x 3 x 2 x 2. The conjecture roughly states that if a lot of small primes divide two numbers a and b, then only a few, large ones divide their sum, c.
2021jan29 Humans Can Theoretically Harness Energy From Black Holes
"Black holes are commonly surrounded by a hot 'soup' of plasma particles that carry a magnetic field," lead author Luca Comisso, a physicist at Columbia University, said in a statement. "Our theory shows that when magnetic field lines disconnect and reconnect, in just the right way, they can accelerate plasma particles to negative energies and large amounts of black hole energy can be extracted."
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